Class UIViewController

The Notification Center app was able to detect a change of orientation. The present app will also be able to make the text run in the correct direction. The app’s view controller object knows the orientation of the device, and the view object will get this information from the view controller.

The view controller and its view contain references to each other.

Source code in

  1. Class AppDelegate: unchanged.
  2. Class ViewController: added methods loadView and supportedInterfaceOrientations.
  3. Class View: I added the init called by the loadView method of the view controller. To get the project to compile and link, I also had to add the init that takes an NSCoder.
  4. Info.plist: has four supported interface orientations.

Create the project

Class View is a subclass of class UITextView, as in these apps: TextView, Swipe. Edit the file ViewController.swift.

In the Project Navigator of Xcode, highlight the name of the project (the top item, ViewController). In the center panel, under Deployment Info, check the checkbox for Device Orientation Upside Down. You will also have to give the supportedInterfaceOrientations method to the view controller.

The view controller and its view contain references to each other.

A view controller has always had a reference named view to the the view underneath it, although we have never used this reference. Now we will give the view a reference named viewController to the view controller above it. These references will allow the view controller and its view to use each other’s properties cand all each other’s methods.

By default, the view controller implicitly calls the view’s init method whose parameter is a reference to an NSCoder. I created a second init method whose parameter is a reference to the view controller, and which stores this parameter in a property. To get the view controller to create the view by calling this second method, I had to give the view controller an explicit loadView method in ViewController.swift. This loadView stores a refernce to the newly-created view in the view property of the view controller.

The drawRect(_:) method of the view is called whenever the device’s orientation changes. The view now has a reference to the view controller, and drawRect(_:) can use this reference to access the properties and call the methods of the view controller.

A view under the control of an iOS 8 view controller occupies the full screen, and the status bar on top of it has a transparent background. (In iOS 6 and earlier, the view did not extend to the region occupied by the status bar.) I started the text in the view with an empty line ("\n") to prevent any text from being written behind the status bar.

MVC: model-view-controller

This app redraws itself by calling the drawRect(_:) method of the View whenever the device is moved to a new orientation: portrait, landscape, portrait upside down, etc. The machinery that calls drawRect(_:) belongs to an object called the view controller, or controller for short. The controller has a property called interfaceOrientation. Whenever the controller senses that this property has changed, the controller will ensure that someone calls the drawRect: method of the view that is controlled by the controller.

In the future, I promise that the controller will respond to changes in something much more substantial than interfaceOrientation, which is one of the controller’s own properties. The controller will respond to changes in a separate object called the model, which can be a formidable repository of data. When the data in the model changes, the controller will see to it that drawRect: is called.

Data will also flow in the opposite direction. The controller will sense when the buttons and sliders in the view have received data from the user. The controller will then transmit this data to the model. For the present, however, the flow of data is only one way, from the controller down to the view.

We saw an example where a little yellow view was added to a big white view. We could have provided a view controller for that big white view but not for the little yellow view. A little view that has been added to another view does not have a view controller of its own.

The application delegate creates the view controller.

Instead of creating a view and a window, this app delegate creates a window and a view controller. The view controller will create the view. In fact, the controller will be the view’s lifelong guardian angel. At any given time, a controller controls only one view.

The application delegate has a propery variable named window that points to the window. The window has a property named rootViewController that points to the controller. The controller has a property named view that points to the view. Make a diagram of this on a piece of paper.

The view controller creates the view.

The controller’s view is created by the loadView method of the controller. loadView creates the view and stores the address of the view into the view property of the controller. The code in loadView is familiar code that until now has been in application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:.

loadView is called automatically the first time the value of the controller’s view property is used. For example, the method application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions: could have triggered a call to loadView with the following mention of viewController.view. loadView would have been called immediately before the value of viewController.view was used as a parameter of addSubview:.

		ViewController *viewController = [[ViewController alloc] initWithNibName: nil bundle: nil];
		[self.window addSubview: viewController.view];

Instead of the above two statements, application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions: accomplished the same thing with the following statement. See the documentation for rootViewController.

		self.window.rootViewController = [[ViewController alloc] initWithNibName: nil bundle: nil];

The controller and the view have pointers to each other.

The view controller and the view contain instance variables or properties that point to each other. The view property of the ViewController object, inherited from class UIViewController, points down to the View object. Conversely, the viewController instance variable of the View object points up to the ViewController object. This instance variable allows the View object to send messages to the ViewController object. It has to be a __weak pointer (two underscores) to allow the view to die before the view controller. Otherwise, the view and the view controller will keep each other alive forever and we’d have a memory leak.

In our view controller, the interfaceOrientation propery has one of the four possible values of the data type UIInterfaceOrientation. Just between you and me, this data type is basically an int, and the four values are basically 1, 2, 3, 4.

The output from drawRect:

The initial orientation is portrait.

The View’s superview is the window. The frame and bounds of the window remain serenely unaffected by the change in orientation.

The Macintosh origin is in the lower left corner of the screen, with the Y axis pointing up. The iPhone origin is in the upper left corner of the screen, with the Y axis pointing down. The CTM agrees with the view’s bounds. The CTM for Portrait and PortraitUpsideDown means “flip it upside down, double the coördinates, and add 640 to the y.” The CTM for LandscapeLeft and LandscapeRight means “flip it upside down, double the coördinates, and add 1136 to the y.”

Things to try

  1. Even though the view controller says that the view’s frame should only be as big as the applicationFrame, the view occupies the entire window. This causes the status bar to appear in front of the top part of the view. To prevent the words in the view from apearing behind the status bar, drawRect: started the format string with the newline character "\n". A better way to accomplish this would be to remove the newline and insert the following initialization code into the initWithFrame:controller: method of the view.
    		//Draw no text in the part of the UITextView
    		//that lies behind the status bar.
    		CGFloat height = [UIApplication sharedApplication].statusBarFrame.size.height;
    		self.textContainerInset = UIEdgeInsetsMake(

  2. To make the controller redraw the view for all four possible orientations, the method supportedInterfaceOrientations should
    	return UIInterfaceOrientationMaskPortrait
    		| UIInterfaceOrientationMaskLandscapeLeft
    		| UIInterfaceOrientationMaskLandscapeRight
    		| UIInterfaceOrientationMaskPortraitUpsideDown;
    or, more briefly,
    	return UIInterfaceOrientationMaskAll;
    To make it redraw only for portrait and portrait upside down, you can say
    	return UIInterfaceOrientationMaskPortrait
    		| UIInterfaceOrientationMaskPortraitUpsideDown;
    See all the possible values for the UIInterfaceOrientationMask.

  3. This app recognizes only four possible orientations. For an app that recognizes two more, face up and face down, see the notification center example. For an app that recognizes angles of tilt (e.g., 30°), see accelerometer.

  4. The drawRect: method of class UIView is called when the orientation of the view changes. The layoutSubviews method of class UIView is also called. In class View, change the name of the drawRect: method to layoutSubviews and remove the unused parameter rect.

  5. It might be easier to create this project with a different Xcode template.
    Choose a template for your new project: Single View Application (instead of Empty Application)

  6. Put some information into the ViewController’s tab bar item. Add the file star.png to the Supporting Files folder in the Project Navigator, checking the checkbox for “Copy items into destination group’s folder (if needed).” In ViewController.m,
    - (id) initWithNibName: (NSString *) nibNameOrNil bundle: (NSBundle *) nibBundleOrNil {
    	self = [super initWithNibName: nibNameOrNil bundle: nibBundleOrNil];
    	if (self) {
    		// Custom initialization
    		self.title = @"Title";
    		self.tabBarItem.image = [UIImage imageNamed: @"star.png"];
    		self.tabBarItem.badgeValue = @"b";
    	return self;
    Run the app and note that the tab bar item is not yet visible.

    Now put a tab bar controller over the the ViewController. Initialize the tab bar controller in application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:. A tab bar controller usually has an array of five or so controllers under it, but this tab bar controller has an array of only one controller. Our other arrays were created with arrayWithObjects:; this tiny array is created with arrayWithObject:.

    	// Override point for customization after application launch.
    	self.window.rootViewController = [[UITabBarController alloc] init];
    	((UITabBarController *)self.window.rootViewController).viewControllers = [NSArray arrayWithObject:
    		[[ViewController alloc] initWithNibName: nil bundle: nil]
    The viewController’s tab bar item should now be visible. (For a row of tab bar items, see the app store.) A badge of more than one character will block part of the star.

  7. Put some information into the viewController’s navigation item. In the initWithNibName:bundle: method of class ViewController, insert the following code. A naviagtion item has room for a more elaborate title than a tab bar item.
    	self.navigationItem.prompt = @"Welcome to";
    	self.navigationItem.title = @"More Elaborate Title";
    	self.navigationItem.rightBarButtonItem = [[UIBarButtonItem alloc]
    		initWithBarButtonSystemItem: UIBarButtonSystemItemDone
    		target: nil
    		action: NULL
    Run the app and note that the navigation item is not yet visible.

    Now put a navigation controller over the ViewController. Initialize the navigation controller in application:didFinishLaunchingWithOptions:.

    	self.window.rootViewController = [[UINavigationController alloc]
    		initWithRootViewController: [[ViewController alloc]
    			initWithNibName: nil
    			bundle: nil
    The viewController’s navigation item should now be visible. We conclude that the navigation bar is 74 pixels (or pixel pairs) high, because 20 + 74 + 386 = 420.